Key Points:

  • A simulation device alone does not produce learning.
  • Simulation interventions should be integrated into the curriculum with associated feedback, reflection and relevant learning outcomes.
  • Learners are motivated to practice skills until they are successful.
  • Assessments made in simulated environments have been shown to correlate with patient outcomes.
  • Debriefing is an essential component of simulation training.
  • Faculty may be resistant to integrating simulation because it puts them in an unfamiliar situation.



  • Describe the importance of simulation-based education
  • Incorporate simulation into your curriculum when appropriate


Recommended Resources: 

Brief Review


Professor Ben Shaw: The use of Simulation in Health Care - Is it Effective? HealthEHU. 26 minutes

Simulation the Revolution in Surgical Education. Richard Satava. TEDxUCC. 17 minutes.

Medical Modeling & Simulation at EVMS. Dr. C. Donald Combs. 6 minutes.

Interprofessional CPR Team Behavior Simulations: Facilitating and Debriefing. IPEPcafe. 6 minutes.

Simulation Technologies Overview. Center For Medical Simulation. 3 minutes.


Pasquale SJ. Educational science meets simulation. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2015 Mar;29(1):5-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bpa.2015.02.003. Review. PubMed PMID: 25902461.

Brydges R, Hatala R, Zendejas B, Erwin PJ, Cook DA. Linking simulation-based educational assessments and patient-related outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acad Med. 2015 Feb;90(2):246-56. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000549. Review. PubMed PMID: 25374041.

Cheng A, Auerbach M, Hunt EA, Chang TP, Pusic M, Nadkarni V, Kessler D. Designing and conducting simulation-based research. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):1091-101. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3267. Epub 2014 May 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 24819576.

Cheng A, Eppich W, Grant V, Sherbino J, Zendejas B, Cook DA. Debriefing for technology-enhanced simulation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Educ. 2014 Jul;48(7):657-66. doi: 10.1111/medu.12432. Review. PubMed PMID: 24909527.;jsessionid=5304E16745FF4D563350BD44F4F24832.f02t04

McGaghie WC, Issenberg SB, Barsuk JH, Wayne DB. A critical review of simulation-based mastery learning with translational outcomes. Med Educ. 2014 Apr;48(4):375-85. doi: 10.1111/medu.12391. Review. PubMed PMID: 24606621.


Using Simulation in Clinical Education. National Health Service. This module discusses how simulation can be used in medical and health professions’ education to develop and improve practical and team resource management skills and introduces the most common uses of simulation in clinical education settings.

Certified Healthcare Simulation Educator (CHSE) Exam Prep Workshop. Society for Simulation in Healthcare. Single day course held multiple times per year in simulation centers across the US. $275

Calendar of Healthcare Simulation Educational Events. Various locations, dates and topics.

Patton K, Morris A, Çoruh B, Kross E, Carlbom D, Thronson L. Teaching to Teach Procedures: A Simulation-Based Curriculum for Senior Residents or Fellows. MedEdPORTAL Publications; 2015. This workshop was designed to improve senior medical residents’ comfort and skills in teaching junior trainees to perform invasive procedures. Core concepts include identifying the needs of the simulated-learners performing the procedure, setting expectations prior to the procedure, and debriefing after completion of the procedure. Components included in this resource include: instructions for pre-simulation preparation, tools to help elicit trainee participation, guide to role-play, and performance evaluations.

Willemsen-Dunlap A, Barker L, Bland A, Croland T, Vozenilek J, Wickham G. DIY: Creating Performance Assessments that Measure Up! MedEdPORTAL Publications; 2014. This workshop is a 90-minute experiential learning activity designed to improve participants' knowledge, skills, and abilities in creating reliable and valid simulation-based performance assessments and, secondarily, to evaluate assessment instruments that already exist. The files comprising this submission contain didactic material that reviews key concepts related to reliability and validity, construction of performance assessments, and information regarding use of assessment results to improve teaching and learning as well as an activity timeline. Contents also include room set-up information, as well as resource materials and worksheets for for participants' use during small group work.


In-Depth Review


International Meeting for Simulation in Healthcare 2014. 8 video playlist. 4 hours.

Simulation Center Tips & How-Tos. B-Line Medical. 28 video playlist.

Simulation in Medical Education. David Gaba, MD. iTunes U. Podcast.

On the Psychology of Simulation. Peter Dieckman, PhD. 53 minutes.


The Comprehensive Textbook of Healthcare Simulation by Adam I. Levine, Samuel DeMaria Jr., Andrew D Schwartz, Alan J. Sim (Editors). 2014. 721 pages. $80.55

Essential Simulation in Clinical Education by Kirsty Forrest, Judy McKimm, Simon Edgar. 2013. 304 pages. $78

Healthcare Simulation in Practice [Kindle Edition] by Mark Hellaby. 2013. 129 pages. $8.69


Training and Using Standardized Patients in Teaching and Assessment. 4.5 day medical education workshop. Given annually at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, Illinois. The workshop is designed to teach participants to recruit, train, and supervise the performance of standardized patients as well as to develop cases and assessment materials for use in both teaching and assessment. $ Fee required

International Meeting for Simulation in Healthcare. Annual CME meeting of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. Typically held in January. $ Fee required